Grand Canyon National Park Biological Soil Crusts

Biological crusts (also known as cryptogamic, microbiotic, crytobiotic and microphytic crusts) are microscopic non-vascular assemblages composed of blue-green algae, diatoms, golden brown algae, lichens, mosses and a few xerophytic (adapted for growth with a limited water supply) liverworts on more mesic (moderate amount of moisture) sites. Blue-green algae contribute to the bulk of the algal tissue. Biological crusts grow on and within soils and other substrates, modifying these surfaces in significant ways. The blue-green algae fix atmospheric nitrogen and thus enhance the nutrient status of the soil. Cryptogamic crusts retard erosion by wind and water, help retain soil moisture during dry periods, slow evaporation rates, and enhance seedling establishment. These living crusts are extremely fragile and one footprint can set back development for decades.

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November's Featured Park
The North Cascades have long been known as the North American Alps. Characterized by rugged beauty, this steep mountain range is filled with jagged peaks, deep valleys, cascading waterfalls and glaciers. North Cascades National Park Service Complex contains the heart of this mountainous region in three park units which are all managed as one and include North Cascades National Park, Ross Lake and Lake Chelan National Recreation Areas.
November's Animal
Badgers are animals of open country. Their oval burrows (ten inches across and four to six inches high) are familiar features of grasslands on sandy or loamy soils of the eastern plains or shrub country in mountain parks or western valleys.
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