Grassland communities in Grand Canyon are rare and few. Mountain meadows on the North Rim are of two types: montane meadows and upland subalpine grasslands. Both are typified by many grass species, with sedges in the wettest areas and forbs and grasses along the dry margins. Semi-desert shrub-grasslands occur at Toroweap Valley and above the Grand Wash Cliffs. These areas are characterized by big galleta, blue and black grama, Indian ricegrass, and three-awns.