The protection, study and management of the park's natural resources and processes is essential for achieving the park's purpose and mission goals. The park includes outstanding geologic and hydrologic resources that represent key physical elements in the park ecosystem, including glaciers and snowfields, geomorphic features such as watersheds and landforms, soils, and paleoecologic deposits. Glaciers, snowfields, watersheds, and soils are especially sensitive to air pollution and climatic change.
Maine ocean islands provide the only nesting sites for Atlantic puffins in the United States. Eastern Egg Rock in the midcoast region, Seal Island and Matinicus Rock at the mouth of Penobscot Bay, and Machias Seal Island and Petit Manan Island off the downeast coast provide habitat for more than 4,000 puffins each summer.