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Antietam National Battlefield Nonnative Species

Nonnative species, also known as exotics, are flora and fauna that intrude on an ecosystem, upsetting the delicate balance of life there. Once established, they have a tendency to dominate and destroy the native system that was originally in place. Some of the primary exotic species found at Antietam are Tree-of-Heaven, Multi-flora Rose and Japanese Honeysuckle. These species are presently threatening agricultural lands, reforestation areas and woodlots.

Exotics compete for soil nutrients and habitat, disrupt view sheds and invade the habitat of rare and threatened native species. An effective approach that managers use is called Integrated Pest Management, or simply IPM. IPM utilizes biological, mechanical, cultural or chemical processes, either individually or in conjunction with one another, to control or eradicate plant and animal pests.

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Maine ocean islands provide the only nesting sites for Atlantic puffins in the United States. Eastern Egg Rock in the midcoast region, Seal Island and Matinicus Rock at the mouth of Penobscot Bay, and Machias Seal Island and Petit Manan Island off the downeast coast provide habitat for more than 4,000 puffins each summer.