The Big South Fork watershed upstream of the northernmost National Area boundary covers approximately 1,123 square miles, primarily in Fentress and Scott Counties, Tennessee, and McCreary County, Kentucky. Smaller areas of Anderson, Campbell, Morgan, and Pickett Counties, Tennessee, are also included in the National Area watershed. The National Area includes only about 17% of the total drainage area. Other than small farm ponds and a few local water supply reservoirs within the watershed, there are no large artificial impoundments upstream to regulate flow or to trap suspended sediments. Lake Cumberland, at the lower end of the watershed, is managed by the US Army Corps of Engineers, which maintains flowage easements over approximately 177 acres within National Area boundaries.